Archive for the 'Big Bang' Category

Big Bang Theory

A discussion with a believer ….

Posted by Pelgrim on 6th September 2009

“So you believe in God?” said the self-proclaimed unbelieving skeptic, and he continued: “All nonsense!” and like if he was stating a fact: “I believe in evolution!”

The believer kindly replied “so you believe  all came from nothing?” And the unbeliever proudly continued “Yes, I believe in the inflationary universe!”

To which the believer answered “Then you believe all came from infinity, and it is not a matter of all or nothing, but nothing a part of all.” To which he unbeliever answered “That is the realm where all known natural laws of physics cease to exist, a reality we can not know or describe.”

The believer answered “We call that the transcended nature of God, and it does not matter how you call yourself, it matters how you are called.”

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The mind of God is music

Posted by Pelgrim on 9th March 2009

Michio Kaku explaining superstring theory:

“The mind of God is music resonating through ten dimensional hyperspace.” - Michio Kaku

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How came order to be from chaos?

Posted by Pelgrim on 6th November 2008

Or the violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

“Scientists have often been baffled by the existence of spontaneous order in the universe. The laws of thermodynamics seem to dictate the opposite, that nature should inexorably degenerate toward a state of greater disorder, greater entropy. Yet all around us we see magnificent structures—galaxies, cells, ecosystems, human beings—that have all somehow managed to assemble themselves.”

Strogatz, Steven. The Emerging Science of Spontaneous Order. Theia. ISBN 0-7868-6844-9

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We are one species, ……

Posted by Pelgrim on 19th April 2007


We are one species. We are starstuff. - Carl Sagan

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Quantized redshift discovery by Tifft

Posted by Pelgrim on 5th July 2006

Dr. William J. Tifft of the University of Arizona is one of many astronomers who have continued Hubble’s work by performing increasingly precise red-shift measurements. Tifft’s technique has been to focus attention on stars in the arms of many spiral galaxies and to measure the observed red shift of each. Since such galaxies should be randomly distributed in the universe, one would expect the red shifts to also be random and to form a smooth distribution. Instead, in 1978 Tifft found that the red-shifts were grouped into clusters of similar values, and that the clusters were regularly spaced with a separation equivalent to velocity shifts of 72 kilometers per second. Such a “quantized” red-shift is completely unexpected and cannot be readily explained. Therefore, it is not surprising that Tifft’s first reports of this phenomenon were met with great skepticism on the astrophysics community. Some skeptics noted that Tifft’s quantization velocity is not much different from 60 kilometers per second, the semi-annual variation in the Earth’s orbital velocity vector in its orbit around the Sun, and suggested that this velocity variation had produced the effect.

Tifft’s results were so controversial that several groups of astronomers set out to prove that they were wrong by gathering data on red shifts more broadly and from a wider variety of galaxy types. To the surprise of the would-be disprovers, they found evidence for the same red-shift quantization that Tifft had reported. For example, a group of astronomers associated with the Royal Observatory at Edinburgh, Scotland, examined 89 spiral galaxies picked at random and found a periodic bunching of red shifts in their data that was similar to the 72 km/s intervals found by Tifft. The data they used came from many different observatories and many different telescopes, and it is therefore unlikely that some instrumental effects or systematic errors produce the observed red-shift quantization. The quantized red-shift phenomenon is not exclusively a property of the visible light spectrum of stars. Recent results from precision radio-telescope observations of spiral galaxies also appear to support Tifft’s results. The quantized red-shift phenomenon won’t go away. Astronomers are coming to accept it as a real phenomenon.

Are there theories that can explain the effect? Not really. Gravitational attraction is known to bunch galaxies into clusters of galaxies with similar red-shifts, but such bunches should be randomly distributed, not regularly spaced. Tifft’s Arizona colleague W. John Cocke attempted to place the quantized red-shift effect in a theoretical ad hoc “quantum” framework by hypothesizing a “red shift” operator constructed to produce discrete recession velocities as eigenvalues of a wave equation. Cocke’s approach, however, did not yield velocities spaced a even intervals. Instead, the squares of the velocities were equally spaced in the model. In later theoretical work, Nieto at Los Alamos devised a mathematical technique for producing evenly spaced velocities. However there is no physical justification for such a wave equation or red shift operator, nor is there any explanation of underlying mechanisms behind the suggested mathematics.

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Electro magnetic fields, matter and its source

Posted by Pelgrim on 5th July 2006

Plasma is electric current flow in space without the mechanical limitations of physical circuitry.
Electro magnetic fields
Maxwell studied the parameters of electrical and magnetic fields and gave us the famous four Maxwell equations which have been used since in all electromagnetic field equations.

But Maxwell also included a tiny term in his original equations which he incorporated in order to make the equations consistent. The term was tiny, but the mathematics involved 20 quaternions to solve. Maxwell called this tiny current displacement currents, and they were to connect the Ether to the fields. But the Ether did not survive, and with it, Maxwell’s tiny displacement current was simplified out.

Thomas Kuhn, using Maxwell as an example on his explanation of scientific revolutions, wonders, “…perhaps we shall someday know what these displacement currents are.”

Maxwell’s displacement is that tiny current which connects the electric<>magnetic fields to their source.

There is a source. All matter is but electron fields interacting together. Fields are moving and moving is energy. Energy does not come from nowhere and what goes out must come in. This much is known. All matter-fields are sustained through the Maxwell displacement currents by a non-local plenum of high energy potential known by many different names. This much is to be learned.

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Halton Arp’s redshift discoveries

Posted by Pelgrim on 5th July 2006

galaxy.jpgArp discovered, from photographs and spectra with the big telescopes, that many pairs of quasars (”quasi-stellar objects”) which have extremely high redshift z values (and are therefore thought to be receding from us very rapidly - and thus must be located at a great distance from us) are physically connected to galaxies that have low redshift and are known to be relatively close by. Because of Arp’s observations, the assumption that high red shift objects have to be very far away - on which the “Big Bang” theory and all of “accepted cosmology” is based - has to be fundamentally reexamined.!

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Big Bang?

Posted by Pelgrim on 5th July 2006

The Big Bang is already dead! The unheralded “Galileo of the 20th century”, Halton Arp, has proven that the universe is not expanding. The Big Bang theory is based on a misinterpretation of redshift. The redshift of a distant galaxy is measured in the light coming from that galaxy. Lines in the spectrum of that galaxy show a shift toward the red compared with the same lines from our Sun. Arp discovered that high and low redshift objects are sometimes connected by a bridge or jet of matter. So redshift cannot be a measure of distance. Most of the redshift is intrinsic to the object. But there is more: Arp found that the intrinsic redshift of a quasar or galaxy took discrete values, which decreased with distance from a central active galaxy. In Arp’s new view of the cosmos, active galaxies “give birth” to high redshift quasars and companion galaxies. Redshift becomes a measure of the relative ages of nearby quasars and galaxies, not their distance. As a quasar or galaxy ages, the redshift decreases in discrete steps, or quanta.

The huge puzzle for astrophysicists is why a galaxy should exhibit an atomic phenomenon. So we turn to particle physics. This difficulty highlights the fact that quantum “mechanics” applied to atoms is a theory without physical reality. The weirdness of quantum theory has been attributed to the subatomic scale to which it applies. But now that we have quantum effects in something the size of a galaxy, this convenient nonsense is exposed. If Arp is right many experts are going to look very silly. His discovery sounded the alarm in some halls of Academe and since nobody likes a loud noise - particularly if they are asleep - the knee-jerk response was to attack the guy with his finger on the alarm button. Arp’s telescope time was denied, papers rejected, and he was forced to leave the US to pursue his work.

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